/ UiT The Arctic University of Norway
 

Descriptions of the Population and Housing Census 1980

Housing Statistics

Employment Statistics

Families and Households

Like in 1970, the 1980 census publications do not contain copies of the enumerator instructions, but rather background material for the interpretation of the published tables. These were summarized in English, and included here together with copies of the census forms, since they indirectly also document the creation of the census manuscripts. Some of this information has been skipped as redundant, since it was repeated in two or more of the three volumes. (In 1946 and 1960, virtually no background material was printed, while the 1950 publications are the last to render complete copies of the instructions and forms.)

Housing Statistics

1. SURVEY DESIGN

1.1. Coverage

The Population and Housing Census 1980 comprises all persons (also foreign citizens) who as of 1 November 1980 were registered as resident in Norway.

The housing census includes all private dwellings (privately owned apartments etc.) in which at least one person was registered as resident by 1 November 1980.

Vacant dwellings or those only temporarily occupied (e.g. by unmarried persons temporarily living away from home in pursuit of their education) are not included in the census. No data were collected on retirement homes, children's homes or other types of institutions.

This time no information about the unit "house" itself was requested. However, at times some information as to the type of dwelling within a house unit was necessary. What we mean by dwelling (the place a person is to regard as her dwelling) and the types of dwelling, we explain in section 3.

1.2. Statistical basis

Most data of a population and housing census is based upon information given directly on the questionnaires. Such questionnaires were sent to all persons who either were 16 years of age and above, or who were to be 16 by the end of 1980 (see Annex 1).

For those under 16 the necessary data was supplied by the area's Population Register. Data about the various private dwellings were collected by means of a separate questionnaire (see Annex 2).

Information on age, sex and other demographical characteristics was supplied by the Central Bureau of Statistics' Central Population Register.

The population and housing census was carried out in accordance to Law 2 of 25 April 1907 and by decree of Parliament of 16 November 1978.



1.3. Collection of data

Questionnaires for the population census 1980 were mailed directly to the individuals. Before mailing the questionnaires, they were first supplied with names and addresses, according to the Central Population Register. Each person received a personal questionnaire with instructions.

In addition, the oldest member of the family received a housing questionnaire together with a return envelope. After filling in the questionnaires all residents returned them, together with the housing questionnaire, in one envelope. In case of several families living in the same dwelling, only

one housing questionnaire was filled in. Such a collection method made it possible to establish a joint residential household (see below) for the population and housing census.

For the census each individual is assumed to have her dwelling at the place she was registered by 1 November 1980. The collected data, however, revealed that some people actually were not living where they officially were registered. Such applied to e.g. unmarried students and pupils living away from home in single rooms and who returned their questionnaires together with their landlords'. The same was true for persons who had moved shortly before 1 November 1980 and had responded with information on their new address, although the move actually was not registered officially until after 1 November 1980. In such cases the original address according to the Central Population Register was considered valid. In section 3 we explain what a person was to regard as her dwelling. Also, the term "dwelling household" (bohusholdning) is more closely defined.

Persons who did not return their questionnaires in time were sent an addressed reminder. If they still did not respond they were contacted in person by a numerator and asked to supply the requested information.



2. SOURCES OF ERRORS

Various kinds of errors which effect the final census data always will occur when collecting and evaluating census material.

The majority of such mistakes happens when filling in the questionnaires and show up as wrong or incomplete answers.

In respect to the housing questionnaire such errors likely occurred when returning the questionnaire and often reflect a discrepancy between the actual and the registered place of dwelling (see section 1.3).

In order to determine the extent of such errors a quality control test was carried out in conjunction with the census.

Section 7 contains the main results of the quality control test for some of the essential variables of the dwellings.



3. TERMS AND VARIABLES

3.1. Person variables

Persons who are to be comprised by the census are supposed to be registered in their respective municipality and are assumed to be living at the address found in the Central Population Register by 1 November 1980. The main rule is that all persons are to register themselves as permanent residents where they are spending the night regularly.

Other rules for registration are as follows

Relation to the residence Supposed to register in
Married persons, who because of work, studies, military services etc. are not living in the couple's home The couple's home
Unmarried persons, who because of their education or military service are not living in their parents'/guardians' home Their parents'/guardians' home
Unmarried persons with own work, usually most not living at home The place of dwelling where they are living time
Persons who are on holiday, visiting friends or on a business trip etc. The place of residence where they are living most of the time
Persons living at a children's home, a retirement home, a nursing home, or are in private care In the children's home, the retirement home, nursing home, or where they are being cared for
Persons staying at a hospital, labour centre, rehabilitation centre or in prison In their last place of dwelling

Persons who cannot claim a place of dwelling are classified under a category for persons, "without permanent dwelling". Persons without a permanent dwelling are as a rule still registered in the municipality of their last permanent place of dwelling.

From here one the term "dwelling" is to imply "registered place of dwelling". No information on temporary dwellings is collected. As a result no data on the size of population present is available.

Data from the Population and Housing Census 1980 was not used to adjust (rectify) the Central Population Register.

Age

Each person is classified by age as of 31 December 1980 (Age = 1980 minus year of birth).

Marital status
Four main categories were established: unmarried, married, divorced and widowed persons. Separated are placed in the category married.

3.2. Family and types of household

Classification as family and type of household was valid by the census date 1 November 1980.

Family

One family we defined as: i

1. A married couple with or without unmarried children who are registered as living in the same private home, a retirement home, a nursing home etc.

2. A father/mother with unmarried children who are registered as living in the same private home, a retirement home, a nursing home, a boarding home, a hotel etc.

3. A person not belonging to these two above mentioned categories is to be considered as one family (family consisting of one person).

In families with married couples are also included unmarried children of only one of the marital partners and unmarried adopted children and step-children, but not foster children.

The above mentioned distinction excludes persons (e.g. couples) who are not registered as living together in the same private dwelling, and therefore are not classified as members of the same family. Also married, separated, divorced and widowed persons are under no circumstances considered belonging to the same family as their parents. If, for example, a couple is living together with a divorced daughter, the couple form a family of their own and the daughter also forms a separate family. We may also add that unmarried brothers and sisters who share the same home without any parents are classified as separate families.



Type of household

We distinguish between two basic types of household, namely, a private household and a joint

household.

- A "private household" includes all persons who were registered as living in a private dwelling. This type of household is then subdivided according to the number of families belonging to the same household. Each household unit is as such considered a dwelling unit. Thus, all persons living under the same roof are being included. Therefore, the number of private households coincides with the number of dwelling units.

A "joint household" covers persons registered as living in a retirement home, a children's home, a nursing home etc.

Employees living in such homes with a joint household are always classified under the category private household. The same applies to military personnel, living in residences at military camps.

3.3. Dwelling variables

These apply to the type of dwelling each person had registered as her dwelling by 1 November 1980.

Dwelling (dwelling units-etc)

By dwelling unit we mean a row-house, semi-detached house, an apartment rented form another private person, an apartment rented from a company, society or co-operative, a furnished apartment, or a single room with separate entrance. A detached house is considered a dwelling unit as well.

Single rooms without a separate entrance are as a rule not classified as a dwelling unit. However, each single room in a building specifically divided into single rooms is regarded as a separate dwelling unit. That also applies when several single rooms share the same hall, bath and/or kitchen.

Furthermore, single rooms for nursing personnel, houses for medical staff and rooms at a hospital a military base or a part of a joint household are always considered separate dwellings units.

All rooms which are occupied by one or several members of the same household and under the same roof are considered belonging to the main dwelling. The term dwelling will therefore coincide with the term dwelling unit.

In some cases a dwelling will consist of more than one dwelling unit. If, for example, unmarried children are living in a separate apartment (single room with separate entrance), yet under the same roof as their parents, they are supposed to be living in the same dwelling. In that case the dwelling consists of both the unit in which the parents are living and the one the children are occupying.

Only if the children are registered as a separate family, is their dwelling unit considered separately.

Single rooms without separate entrance and not part of a building divided into single rooms, an institution etc., and occupied by persons who are registered at that address are to be considered a part of the main dwelling.

A private dwelling is defined to be a house which is not occupied by people taken care of in retirement homes, nursing homes or living in other joint households. Staff dwellings (e.g. nursing personnel) of larger institutions are to be considered private dwellings. The same applies to houses for military personnel.

Only private dwellings are included in this census. In the tables, such private dwellings are simply called "dwellings".

Room

Information on number of rooms is based on dwellings included in the census, being used as living quarters all year round and being 6 square metres or more. Kitchen, bathroom, entrance, hall, trim room, attic, laundry room and business offices are not included.

No special information on the total number of rooms in a dwelling with more than 8 rooms was requested in the 1980 census, whereas this was done in 1970.

The data on "total number of rooms" in dwellings with more than 8 rooms is consequently based upon an average number from the 1970 census (e.g. average number of rooms in dwellings with more than 8 rooms). That average number is used for the 1980 census in order to determine the number of rooms in dwellings with more than 8 rooms.

Floor space

By a dwelling's floor space we understand its netto floor space. In addition to dwelling rooms of 6 sq. metres or more, kitchen, bath, entrance, hall etc. are also included. Rooms or space used jointly by two or more dwelling units, such as joint hall, entrance or bath etc. are not included in the total.

Ownership/tenancy

As owner of the dwelling we have reckoned the person who owns the dwelling alone or together with others (freeholder dwelling etc.), who owns the dwelling through a housing co-operative (co-operative dwelling) or who owns the dwelling through an estate joint-stock company (owner-tenant flat).

As tentant of the dwelling we have reckoned the person who rents the dwelling at an ordinary tenancy agreement (lease), who rents the dwelling on terms related to her work (service or duty dwelling), who rents the dwelling for a limited period of time (including subletting) or who rents the dwelling on other terms than those mentioned above (included debenture dwelling and dwelling provided by new owner of property for its former owner).

Kitchen

The term kitchen refers to a part of the dwelling which is set apart from the rest and is equipped with appliances for the preparation of meals.

The kitchen does not have to be a separate room. In a building with single rooms and a joint kitchen, the kitchen is not included as part of the dwelling unit. The floor space of a kitchen includes the floor space for benches and cupboards etc.

Main source of heating

If two or more sources are equally important for the heating of the dwelling, both (all) of these are included.

Disposal of car

By disposal of car we mean to own/rent a car for private use, including company owned cars. A station-wagon or a van is to be regarded as a private car if used privately as well.

Type of dwelling

A house is supposed to be completely separated from other buildings (from the basement to the attic). Each apartment building is considered as one house, even though there are dividing firewalls from the basement to the attic. Likewise row houses constitute one house.

A separate house is supposed to have at least I metre distance to the neighbour's. A single family dwelling may also include a furnished apartment and/or one or several rooms which are used as single rooms.

Row houses have at least one wall or part of a wall in common. Houses in a chain are connected with each other by a garage, carport, covered walk etc. Terrace-buildings are apartment houses which are built jointly on a slope, and where the roof or part of the roof of the apartment below functions as a terrace for the apartment above.

Horizontally divided houses for two families are considered separate dwelling units (which may be of different sizes) where one section is placed above the other.

The category "other small building with less than 3 storeys" comprises also dwellings with less than 1 metre distance to the neighbour's. he category "business buildings etc." includes houses where one half or less of the floor space is used as a private dwelling.

Buildings containing a joint household are dwellings where the occupants and/or temporary occupants share a joint household.

Information on number of dwellings, rooms and occupants in such buildings with a joint household comprises only privately used dwelling units, rooms and their occupants.

Year of construction

By year of construction we refer to the calendar year where at least one half of the building was ready to be moved into. For houses which have been rebuilt the original year of construction is valid.

Average numbers

Occupants per dwelling is equal to the number of registered occupants divided by the number of dwellings.

Rooms per dwelling is equal to the number of rooms (excluding the kitchen) in a private dwelling divided by the total number of such dwellings.

Occupants per room is equal to the number of occupants of a private dwelling divided by the

number of rooms (excluding the kitchen) of a private dwelling.

The calculation of the average number of rooms per dwelling and occupants per room does not include buildings where the number of rooms was not given.



4 . USE OF TABLES

The tables of the publication on housing statistics can be divided into three different main groups.

1. Tables 1-4 present main results on country level for all housing variables being included in the Population and Housing Census 1980.

2. Tables 5-19 present results on different geographical levels, such as region, trade district, county and municipality.

3. Tables 20-23 present results where the housing variables are related to socio-demographic variables.

Table 24 presents results for the variable "disposal of car".



5. COMMENTS ON THE TABLES

Tables 7, 8, 16, 18 and 24 present numbers for regions. The regions are:

Østlandet: Østfold, Akershus, Oslo, Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Vestfold and Telemark.

Sørlandet: Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder.

Vestlandet: Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal.

Trøndelag: Sør-Trøndelag and Nord-Trøndelag.

Nord-Norge: Nordland, Troms and Finnmark.



6. COMPARISON TO STATISTICS FROM THE POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS 1970

At the point of beginning, we must warn against uncritical calculations of figures showing change on the basis of the census of 1970 and 1980. The possibility of comparison of the census data is made difficult as a result of the development in society and the altered method of collecting data.

"House" is no unit in this census. Some information is, though, given as to the house in which the dwelling is.

The unit "dwelling" in the main has the same rules for delimiting in the two censuses. The results still give an uncertain basis for calculating the alteration in the number of dwellings during the 10-years period. This is due to the censuses' not including dwellings being uninhabited or being occupied by persons only temporarily present (such as unmarried persons staying away from their parents' home due to studies, schooling etc.)

Some of the variables of the 1970 census are not included in the 1980 census. These are "number of storeys in the house", "water supply", "sewer outlet", "ownership of the house" and "holiday house".

New variables when compared to the 1970 census are "area of the dwelling", "source of heating", "chimney", "stove" and "disposal of car in the household".

A number of the variables are the same in the two censuses. Changes have occurred, however, for some of the classifications or values of the variables. Explicitly, we mention the variables referring to "ownership/tenancy" of the dwelling and its "sanitary standard". The data on "number of rooms" deviate for the two censuses. -Whereas kitchens having a size of at least 6 square metres were included in the number of rooms in the 1970 census, kitchens are totally excluded from the number of rooms in the 1980 census. This also has impact on the dwelling density figures of the two censuses.

The household unit refers for the two censuses to dwelling household, that is persons occupying the same dwelling. The classifications of family and type of household are mainly the same for the 1970 and the 1980 censuses. Apart from this, alterations have not been made in units, variables and values of importance worth mentioning for a comparison of the results of the two censuses.

We otherwise refer to the quality control investigation, which will publish results for estimated figures changing from the 1970 to the 1930 census. This investigation will be published during summer 1982.



7. THE EVALUATION SURVEY

The evaluation survey on the Population and Housing Census 1980 (ES) is a sample survey held during November and December 1980, shortly after the Population and Housing Census itself.

Casual and systematical errors always occur in the answers given on the questionnaires at i population censuses and similar investigations. Additionally, a certain percentage of the participants fail to answer single questions.

The purpose of the evaluation survey was to acquire knowledge as to the coverage of such errors for some selected variables, and how big errors they cause in the statistics. We also wished to get insight into the causes of the errors in the given answers, and if the erroneous answers were concentrated around certain categories of answers and in certain groups within the population. A further purpose of the ES was to correct the census figures for the variables included in the ES. These variables were:

- Number of rooms in the dwelling
- Ownership/tenancy to the dwelling
- Source of heating in the dwelling

In the ES, we have drawn a sample of housing questionnaires and by means of interviewers visited the dwellings represented by the questionnaires. The interviewers collected information about the variables mentioned above, and these information were compared with those given on the questionnaires.

In the ES, questions about the variables were asked on the basis of the same definitions as for the census, but in a more detailed manner. Further, the questions were posed by trained interviewers, capable of solving misunderstandings. We therefore suppose, that the answers received through the ES have a better quality than those received through the census itself. Our experiences with the ES show, however, that nor can the data collected by the interviewers be considered 100 per cent correct.

The figures here published from the ES must be considered preliminary. The figures will be closer analysed, and the detailed results of these analyses will be published at a later time. The figures here presented give, however, a sure hint as to in which direction the errors of the census point.

The tables presented comprise only private dwellings being occupied as per 1 November 1980. It turned out that 1.0 per cent of the dwellings visited were empty or torn/burnt down before the census date. This was so, because the household we had expected to find in the dwelling, had not reported their removal. Additionally, 0.5 per cent of the visited households in reality were part of a common household, although they in the census were not registered as a common household.

The tables show the share in each category according to the census and the estimated share on the basis of the ES. Further, they give the net deviation, i.e. the difference between the share in the census and the corresponding share in the ES. The reason for these net deviations is, that the census and the ES have classified some dwellings differently. We will comment the main deviations between census and ES contributing to the net deviations, and suggest the extent of these deviations.

The given uncertainties give the uncertainties both for the percentages estimated in the ES and for the net deviations. These uncertainties correspond to the standard deviations for the estimates of the ES and the net deviations. If and interval is constructed, with centre in the estimated value and breadth equal to the uncertainty on each side of the estimated value, we know that this interval will cover the real value with a probability of approximately 95 per cent. Example: The interval 13.3 - 1.1 = 12.2 per cent to 13.3 + 1.1 = 14.4 per cent cover the real share of dwellings rented "with an ordinary tenancy contract" with a probability of approximately 95 per cent.



Employment Statistics

1. SURVEY DESIGN

......

1.2. Statistical basis

Most data of a population and housing census is based upon information given directly on the questionnaires. Such questionnaires were sent to all persons who either were 16 years of age and above, or who were to be 16 by the end of 1980 (see Annex 1).

For those under 16 the necessary data was supplied by the area's Population Register. Data on educational background are based upon information from the Population and Housing Census 1970 and the Bureau's register on started and completed education. The register contains all types of education which a person has finished in Norway in the period 1970 - 1980. In addition, data on foreign education from the Population and Housing Census 1980 are registered.

Information on age, sex and other demographical variables was supplied by the Central Population Register in the Bureau.

Data on persons doing military service and compulsory social service are collected through Forsvarets overkommando and Administrasjonen for sivilt tjenestepliktige.

The Population and Housing Census was carried out in accordance to Law 2 of 25 April 1907 and by decree of Parliament of 16 November 1978.

......



2. SOURCES OF ERRORS

Various kinds of errors which effect the final census data will always occur when collecting and evaluating census material.

The majority of such mistakes happens when filling in the questionnaires and show up as wrong or incomplete answers. The Bureau did not contact the respondent even if the data given were wrong or incomplete.

Errors which arise through the processing work and basically attached to the coding of information, in this publication particularly the information on industry and occupation.

In order to determine the extent of such errors an evaluation survey was carried out in conjunction with the census. The results from this survey will be published in the series Statistical Analyses (SA), and will discuss some of the essential variables of dwellings, employment and labour market. Some of the results are presented in section 6.



3. TERMS AND VARIABLES

3.1. Person variables

When nothing else is mentioned, the information on persons refers to 1 November 1980.

Place of residence

.....

Marital status

3 main categories were established: unmarried, married and previously married. Previously married comprises all who are separated, divorced or widow/widower. In addition, the term "not married" is used. It is defined as the sum of all unmarried and previously married.

Cohabitants

Persons who live together (in a marriage-like situation) without being formally married are classified as cohabitants. In this group, only persons registered as resident at the same address in the population register per 1 November 1980, are included.

Education

The data on education cover educations, both full- and part-time, which normally last for at least 5 months.

In the case of individuals with more than one education, the one that has had the longest duration (normal duration of the course in addition to the duration of obligatory pre-requisite courses) is considered to be the highest education. In the case of educations with identical total durations, the course which is of greatest occupational importance is considered to be the highest education. Educational classification has been done according to the 1973-edition of the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (Manuals No. 28 from the Central Bureau of Statistics).

The Standard uses a pyramid classification system.

Educations are first divided into groups that the Standard calls education levels. Each level is initially ordered according to fields, then subdivided into programme groups.

The classification by level or main groups is made in the following manner:

    0. No education and education preceding the first level (education far 6-year old and smaller. children)
    1. Education at the first level, (1-6 years, pre-school education not included)
    2. Education at the second level, first stage (7-9 years)
    3. Education at the second level, second stage I (10 years)
    4. Education at the second level, second stage II (11-12 years)
    5. Education at the third level, first stage I (13-14 years)
    6. Education at the third level, first stage II (15-16 years)
    7. Education at the third level, second stage I (17-18 years)
    8. Education at the third level, second stage II (over 18 years)
    9. Education at an unknown level

In tables on persons' highest education, the groups 0 and 9 are joined together into one. In the Standard the fields of study are specified as follows:

    1. General programmes
    2. Humanities, religion and theology, fine and applied arts programmes
    3. Education science and teacher training programmes
    4. Administration, economics, social and behavioural science and law programmes
    5. Trade, craft, industrial, mathematics, natural science and engineering programmes
    6. Transport and communications programmes
    7. Medical and para-medical programmes
    8. Agricultural, forestry and fishery programmes
    9. Service and military programmes

The tables from the census specify only the main fields within the various levels or main groups. The other fields have been combined to make one group.

In the 1970-census a tree-way division of the Standard's second level, second stage was made on the basis of the length of education; ten, eleven, and twelve years, respectively.

In the 1980-census the division is in accordance with the standard classification, one class for the 10 year education level, and one for the 11-12-year education level.

Vocational educations completed before 1972/73 which are not based on secondary school educations are coded in the 1980-census as based on eight years of general education. Vocational educations completed after 1972/73 are coded as based on 9 years of general education.

Labour-earnings

The income data used as a basis for the tables on labour earnings are based on the ordinary tax assessment of taxpayers in 1980 and on the separate tax assessment of seamen during the same period of time. The data from the ordinary tax assessments refer to the initial assessments (before complaints).

Labour earnings are defined as equal to the total income used as the basis for pensionable income for persons 17 years of age or more. For persons between the ages of 13 and 16 who are taxed separately, labour earnings are defined as earnings after local deductions. Pensionable income, for the purpose of tax assessment, are incomes earned on land, while pensionable income for the seamen's system of taxation include income earned while on-board shin.

Included in pensionable income are wages and other compensations received for services rendered, including and in addition to regular employment services, for example, fees, commissions, tips and other payments in kind and expense compensations. Also included are the incomes of self-employed businessmen, provided the income earner participates personally in the business. The business income may be earned by the proprietor of a one-man firm or by a responsible member of an enterprise with personal joint and several liability. Sickness benefits and to a certain extent maternity benefits from the National Insurance are also considered to be pensionable income.

Returns on capital that are independent of the participation of the income earner (for example, bank interest and stock dividends) are not considered to be pensionable incomes. The same is true of pension payments and other social security payments (with the exception of sickness and maternity benefits).

Wages and other compensations for services rendered, including and in addition to regular employment service, which are pensionable incomes, are usually registered in gross amounts. Deductions are usually not allowed for expenses incurred while earning income. Businesses income are, however, allowed deductions for this kind of expense. It is the net business income according to the tax law, without deduction for interest on debt, which constitutes the basis for the calculations. A fixed deduction of 10 per cent of this income is allowed. In addition a deduction is allowed for the interest on debt that exceeds 20 per cent of the net income without deduction of interest on debt (maximum 75 per cent of the net income). The gross amount is always stated for sickness and maternity benefits.

In 1980, pensionable income is normally stated with no top limit. A number of people have, however, got their incomes limited to 199 500 kroner which in 1980 was the upper limit for the calculation of membership dues to the National Insurance. Labour earnings are rounded down to the closest number divisible by 100.

.........

3.3. Employment variables

Main source of livelihood

Persons 16 years of age or more, are classified according to main source of livelihood during the 12 months prior to the census date, in other words from 1 November 1979 to 1 November 1980. For persons under the age of 16 living in a private household, the income of other persons is always considered to be the main source of livelihood.

For persons under the age of 16 living in institutional households, social security benefits are considered to be the main source of livelihood.

"Income from own work" means income made through personal economic activity.

"Pension, insurance" includes sickness benefits, unemployment benefits, survivors benefits, disability benefits, old age benefits, occupational injury benefits, war veteran benefits, corporate retirement benefits, etc.

Premium payments in connection with life insurance or personal retirement insurance are considered in the same way as "benefits, loans, property, provisions made for a retiring farmer on handing over the farm to his successor, rental income or other property income". Support from any source other than private persons (for example, compensation from the government, institutions or companies), except pensions and social security, is also calculated here.

Persons whose main source of livelihood is the income of another person, are classified under "income from own work or other persons' work". This applies whether the income comes from labour, pension, social security, or benefit, loan, etc.

Economic activity

In the Population and Housing Census 1980 data were collected about economic activity for the 12 months preceding the census date and for the week just prior to the census date.

All labour performed for payment in the form of wages, income from a private company, commissions, fees, etc. is considered as economic activity. Work performed by a family member with no fixed wage in a family enterprise (for example, a farm or a store) and military service/compulsory social service are also considered as economic activity.

Economically active persons are defined as those persons, 16 years of age or more, who carried on some form of work for a total of at least 100 hours during the last 12-month period.

Economically active persons, for the purpose of the census statistics for the week prior to the census date, are defined as those persons, 16 years of age or more, who during the last week prior to the census date carried on some form of work for at least one hour during the week. People who were temporarily absent for the entire week due to illness, leave of absence, vacation, etc., were not considered to be economically active.

Working-hours

Data have been collected about working hours for both the 12-month period prior to the census and the week immediately prior to the census date.

Working hours include all of the time spent in some form of economic activity. Working hours that are used for preparation, in addition to ordinary working hours, are also considered (for example, preparations for teachers in addition to actual classroom teaching time). Time used on schoolwork, studies or housework in one's own home, is not included.

Absences due to illness, leave of absence, vacation, etc. are not included in working hours either.

General-information-about-classification-according-to-type-of-industry,-occupation-and-status

Economically active persons, 16 years of age or more, are classified by industry according to the type of business done by the company with which the individual has been associated for the greatest length of time during the 12-month period immediately preceding the census date. These persons are then sub-classified by occupation and by status held in the business for the greatest length of time during the 12-month period.

Persons 16 years of age or more, who were economically active during the week immediately prior to the census, were classified according to the type of industry and occupation which they claimed to have held in the company for the greatest length of time during the 12-month period prior to the census date. Thus there have been no separate data collected about the type of business and occupation or position of economically active persons during the final week prior to the census date.

Industry

The classification of industry conforms closely to the 1978-edition of the Norwegian Standard of Industrial Classification. (Manuals from the Central Bureau of Statistics No. 9). This standard corresponds with the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC).

The standard classification is based upon a five-digit pyramid system, where each digit relates to a particular level of classification. The five levels have been allotted the following notations:

    Major division - 1-digit code
    Division - 2-digit code
    Major group - 3-digit code
    Group - 4-digit code
    Subgroup - 5-digit code

The industries at 1-digit level have the following 9 divisions:

    1. Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
    2. Oil extraction, mining and quarrying
    3. Manufacturing
    4. Electricity, gas and water supply
    5. Construction
    6. Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels
    7. Transport, storage and communication
    8. Financing, insurance, real estate and business services
    9. Community, social and personal services

A survey on a more detailed division into industry groups is given in the Standard Industrial Classification.

In the industry tables the terms "primary industries", "secondary industries" and "tertiary industries" are used. They comprise the following industries (1-digit level):

Primary industries:1. Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
Secondary industries:2. Oil extraction, mining and quarrying
3. Manufacturing
4. Electricity, gas and water supply
5. Construction
Tertiary industries:6. Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels
7. Transport, storage and communication
8. Financing, insurance, real estate and business services
9. Community, social and personal services


Occupation

Occupational classification has been made according to the Norwegian Standard Classification of Occupations (published by the Directorate of Labour in 1965). The Standard is mainly based on the 1958-edition of the International Classification of Occupations (ISO).

The Standard is constructed so that closely related occupations are arranged into the same occupational groups, which in turn make up occupational areas. These occupational areas then make up occupational fields.

Each occupation in the classification system is referred to by a 5-digit code number:

Digit 1 specifies occupational field.
Digit 1 and 2 specify occupational area.
Digit 1-3 specify occupational group.
Digit 1-5 specify occupation.

The Central Bureau of Statistics has introduced several new occupations to this standard for the 1980-census. The division into occupational groups used in the 1965-edition is the basis here. In addition, some occupational groups have been combined and some others have been divided up into several groups. A new 3-digit group for oil and natural gas work has been introduced. Senior government positions in municipal and county administration and management have also been classified as a separate group.

The groups "Teachers" and "Vocational Training Teachers in Practical Vocations" have been combined to make one group.

The data on occupation are worked up by occupational group (3-digit code). s



Status

The census has been based on the following three classifications according to status:

1. Permanently or temporarily employed

2. Self-employed

3. A family member with no fixed wage in a family enterprises

Persons (also co-owners) who work in a business organized as a joint-stock company (corporation), a co-operative society or any other form of company with limited responsibility, are always counted as employees.

A person is counted as self-employed if he or she runs a business alone at his or her own liability or with others with unlimited responsibility (for example, a partnership).

The class of "family members with no steady wage in a family business" includes persons who work in a family enterprise and have no definite wage and are neither owner nor co-owner of the business. A family member with no permanent wage can receive compensation for labour in the form of room and board, profit-sharing, etc.

In cases where married couples work together in a business (for example, a farm) which is not organized as a corporation or something similar, the individual/s registered as owner/s is/are considered to be self-employed. The other is considered to be a family member with no steady wage in a family enterprise. If both spouses were registered as owners of the enterprise, then both are considered to be self-employed.General information about the employment situation in the week 25 to 31 October 1980

By using the replies to questions 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 on the personal questionnaire (see Annex 1), a description has been made of the employment situation in the week prior to the census date, in other words, the week from 25 to 31 October 1980. In addition to eliciting information about working hours, the questions explored the following characteristics: place of gathering, travelling frequency, travelling time, and means of transport.

Travelling frequency, travelling time and mode of transportation apply to actively employed persons with a definite place of gathering. (See place of gathering).

Travelling time and means of transport apply to persons who are obliged to regularly travel a definite distance to reach their place of gathering (see Travelling frequency).

Place of gathering

The term "place of gathering" means the place where the person concerned reports for duty at the beginning of a working day.

Persons 16 years of age or more, who were actively employed during the week prior to the census date, are classified by the municipality in which their place of gathering is located (squares 1 and 2 on the personal questionnaires, question 12).

Persons who, during this week, reported for duty at various job locations, were at sea, etc., were not considered to have any definite place of gathering (square 3 on the personal questionnaire, question 12).

Travelling frequency

Travelling frequency is defined as the number of times that the person concerned travelled from his/her home to his/her place of employment during the week prior to the census date.

Home is always considered to be the address where the person concerned is listed as living in the population register. In the case of persons living in temporary quarters, for example, a room or a workman's but (during this particular week), the travel time between the room or workman's but and the job location is not considered.

For persons registered as living at their place of employment, the number of days on the job during the week prior to the census date has been calculated.

"Regular commuters" means persons with definite places of gathering who travelled from home to work at least once during the week prior to the census date.

Travelling-time

"Travelling time" is the travel time from home (registered domicile) to location of employment. The travelling time is figured just ore way. Travelling time includes both walking time and waiting time underway. Also included are daily duties such as delivering children to nursery school or to a babysitter, etc. Errands and delays are not included.

For commuters in temporary residences, such as rooms, workman's huts, etc., travelling time is figured from home to work.

Means-of-transport

"Means of transport" means the types of conveyance regularly used one way from home to work during the week prior to the census date.

For persons who did not use the same means of transport every day, the one most often used was noted.

3.4. Geographical classifications

In this publication the following classifications are used:

A The whole country
B region
C county
D trade area
E municipality

Region is classified into:

1. ØSTLANDET
1.1. Akershus/Oslo
1.2. The rest of Østlandet
1.2.1. The inland counties (Hedmark/Oppland)
1.2.2. The coastal counties (Østfold, Buskerud, Vestfold, Telemark)
2. AGDER/ROGALAND (Aust-and Vest-Agder, Rogaland)
3. VESTLANDET (Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal)
4. TRØNDELAG (Sør- and Nord-Trøndelag)
5. NORD-NORGE (Nordland, Troms and Finnmark)


The classification of trade areas follows the Bureau's standard for classification of trade areas (Manuals from the Central Bureau of Statistics No. 13, 1975).

Type of municipality residence area

The publication contains information on employment, by type of municipality. The classification of municipalities follows the Bureau's standard for classification of municipalities (Manuals from the Central Bureau of Statistics No. 35, 1979).

The definitions of types of municipality are:

Type 1. Agricultural municipalities A greater number of residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. In addition at least one of the following requirements must be satisfied:

a. More than two thirds of the persons employed in primary and secondary industries are engaged in agriculture and forestry.

b. A greater number of persons are employed in agriculture and forestry than in fishing, which again employs more than manufacturing.

Type 2. Less central, mixed agricultural and manufacturing municipalities More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. No single type of the primary and secondary industries employs more than two thirds of those employed in primary and secondary industries. Among these industries fishing employs the smallest number of residents. The municipality is less centrally located.

Type 3. Central, mixed agricultural and manufacturing municipalities This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 2. The municipality is, however, centrally or highly centrally located.

Type 4. Fishing municipalities. More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. Fishing employs more persons than does agriculture and forestry and employs at least half the number of those employed in manufacturing.

Type 5. Less central manufacturing municipalities More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. In addition at least one of the following requirements must be satisfied:

a. Manufacturing employs more than two thirds of those employed in primary and secondary industries.

b. Manufacturing employs more than twice as many residents as does fishing, which again employes more persons than agriculture and forestry. The municipality is less centrally located.

Type 6. Central manufacturing municipalities. This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 5. The municipality is, however, centrally or highly centrally located.

Type 7. Highly central, mixed service and manufacturing municipalities. More residents are employed in service industries than in primary and secondary industries. Manufacturing employs more persons than any primary industry. The municipality is highly centrally located.

Type 8. Other mixed service and manufacturing municipalities This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 7. The municipality is, however, not highly centrally located.

Type 9. Other municipalities. More residents are employed in service industries than in the primary and secondary industries. Primary industries employ more persons than does manufacturing.

Some of the tables in this publication have distributions by type of area of residence. A distinction has been made between two types of areas of residence, namely densely and sparsely populated areas. Densely populated areas within a municipality or a county consist of the urban settlements and possible parts of urban settlements located within the municipality/the county. An urban settlement is defined as an agglomeration having at least 200 residents at the date of the census and where the distance between the houses - as a rule - does not exceed 50 metres. However, in some cases separately built-up areas which appear to be closely connected are classified as one urban settlement. Some of the urban settlements are located in two or more municipalities.

.........



5. COMPARISON TO STATISTICS FROM THE POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS 1970

As a consequence of differences in coverage and survey design the census data from 1970 and 1980 cannot uncritically be compared. Some variables are classified in a different way, some variables from the 1970-census are not included in the 1980-census, and/or new variables are included in the 1980-census.

Below is given a survey on the employment variables classified in another way, or added, from the 1970- to the 1980-census. a) .Main source of livelihood



e) Industry

The classification of industry in the 1980-census is not directly comparable with the classification of industry in the 1970-census. This is due to a change to the new Standard Industrial Classification published in 1972. In the Population and Housing Census 1970 the classification of industry was made according to the 1960-edition of the Standard. In connection with the 1980-census the Population Census Division made a recoding key with a survey on the ratio of industry codes at the 1970 and 1980-census. In table 2 which gives figures for 1970, the group "Not reported type of industry" also comprises employees with not comparable codes in 1970 and 1980.

In addition to this publication, comparable figures between the censuses in 1970 and 1980 are given in unpublished tables, which are obtainable on application to the Central Bureau of Statistics.

As mentioned before, some new variables were introduced in the 1980-census. One wished to give a more detailed description of the employment situation a particular week. The actual week was the period 25 to 31 October 1980. The following variables are included:

a) Working hours in the week 25 to 31 October 1980

b) Place of gathering in the week 25 to 31 October 1980

c) Number of work journeys in the week 25 to 31 October 1980

d) Travelling time to place of work in the week 25 to 31 October 1980

e) Means of transport from home to place of work in the week 25 to 31 October 1980.

6. EVALUATION SURVEY

The evaluation survey ES for the Population and Housing Census 1980 is a sample survey held in November-December 1980 shortly after the Population and Housing Census took place.

Population censuses and other similar investigations are subject to random and systematic mistakes in the answers filled in on the questionnaires. In addition, there are always a number of people who do not answer individual questions.

The main goals of the evaluation survey were to gain knowledge about the extent of the influence of these types of mistakes on some selected special features and to find out the extent of damage this causes to the statistics. We wished also to gain insight into the reasons for the mistakes in the answers and to investigate whether the mistakes were prominent in any definite answer categories or in any definite population group. Another goal of the evaluation survey was to produce corrected numbers for some of the special features investigated by the census. In this chapter we include the following topics:

Economic activity during the census year 1 November 1979 to 1 October 1980

Working hours of the economically active during the census year

The most important source of livelihood for the economically active

The most important occupation of the economically active

Economic activity and working hours during the week 25 October 1980 to 31 October 1980.

A selection of persons was made for the ES and these persons were visited by interviewers. The interviewers collected data about the special features mentioned above, among other things, and these data were compared to that collected from the personal questionnaires in the census itself.

In the ES, questions were asked about the special features using the same definitions that were used in the census, but in a more detailed form. In addition, the questions were posed by trained interviewers who were capable of clearing up misunderstandings. We can, therefore, presume that the answers resulting from the ES were of better quality than those resulting from the census itself. Our experiences in carrying out the ES show, however, that the data gathered by interviewers, cannot be assumed to be 100 per cent correct either.

The figures from the ES which are published here must be viewed as preliminary. These figures will be more thoroughly analysed and detailed analyses will be published at a later data. The figures given here, however, are reliable indicators of the directions taken by the answer mistakes in the census.

The tables show the shares of each category of the census and the calculated shares according to the ES. In addition, they show the net deviations, meaning the differences between the shares in the census and the corresponding shares in the ES. We will comment upon the most important deviations between the census and the ES that contribute to the net deviations, and indicate the magnitudes of these deviations. The margins of error listed in the tables correspond to two calculated standard deviations to the estimates from the ES. The example below explains how some of these margins of error should be interpreted.

Example: In Table A, which is based on the ES, figures show that 43.5 per cent of all persons 16 years of age or more, had worked 1300 hours or more in the period 1 November 1979 to 31 October 1980. The margin of error is estimated to be ±0.8 percentage points. The interval from 43.5 - 0.8 = 42.7 per cent to 43.5 + 0.8 = 44.3 per cent will then, with 95 per cent probability, contain the share with "1300 hours or more" that would have resulted had we carried out the ES as a total census. If the calculated deviation is greater than the corresponding calculated margin of, error, it is reasonable to assume that the deviation is, in reality, greater than zero.

The questions on the personal census questionnaire concerning economic activity during the census year attempt to elicit all of the meaningful data concerning economic activity experienced by a person during the census year. This means all jobs held, overtime, absence from work, trades, occupations, etc. that the person has had.

A year is a lengthy period of time in this context and it is not an easy task for the subject to reconstruct and put together all of the relevant events, especially if they cannot be summed up as simply as "full time employment in a job, no particular absence". The answers given to a number of questions in the census must therefore be viewed more as rough estimates than as precise statements of true conditions.

There are two different systematic tendencies that often occur with this type of question. Firstly, there is the so-called "forgetfullness effect". People do not remember all of the jobs they have had during a year or events connected with the jobs. This is one of the reasons that some people do not complete the questionnaire sufficiently in such surveys. The forgetfullness effect contributes to the under-reporting of economic activity. Secondly, and working in the opposite direction, there is something called the "telescope effect". The effect occurs when persons remember jobs they have had and events that have occurred prior to the period covered by the questions, but mistakenly place them partly or wholly within the period. In some cases it is also possible that the subject may not have understood the definite time limitations of the period.

In the 1980-census only persons with at least 100 working hours during the census year were considered to be economically active. This involved an estimate on the part of a number of the subjects prior to answering the questions. They had to estimate whether their working time consisted of as much as 100 hours. This estimation can, however, work both ways and cannot be calculated as a systematic source of error. It must be viewed as a so-called "chance" error which contributes to the non-systematic margin of error in the census figures.

When the questions about employment were asked in the ES, emphasis was placed on gathering information about each job held by the subject and determining the date each job began and ended, vacations and other absences. Even though it was not possible to collect all the details about jobs with complete accuracy in the ES either, we believe that the reports from the ES are of better quality than those from the census.

In the tables one can see that the numbers for "not employed"/"employed" figured in the ES can vary a little. This is because the tables were calculated independently of one another and on the basis of somewhat different criteria.





Families and Households

Socio-economic status

Grouping by socio-economic status is intended to divide the population into social strata or classes on the basis of several important indicators. In this publication, these statistics are based on persons 16 years of age or older. These persons were divided into different groups according to various criteria.

The most important grouping distinction is based on whether or not a person is economically active. In order to be included in the Economically active group, persons must have worked at least 500 hours in the period 1 November 1979 - 31 October 1980.

Economically active persons are classified according to occupational status and as well as to certain characteristics of their primary occupation. Division according to occupational status results in 2 main groups, employees and self-employed persons. Family labour is grouped along with self-employed persons.Employees are grouped according to 3 criteria. First of all, employees are grouped into workers and salaried employees. Workers consist first and foremost of employees who perform manual labour in industry, building, construction and transport. The salaried employee category includes all other employees.

The second criterion for classifying employees is competence. Occupational groups are divided into 4 levels of competence. Placement is determined on the basis of the length of occupational education the members of the occupational groups had, on the average, at the time of the 1970 census. Somewhat generally, the lowest level corresponds to lower secondary school and no occupational education, the second level to upper secondary school (12 years), the third level to higher education, undergraduate degree (15 years) and the top level to higher education, graduate degree (18 years). The criterion is intended to provide an important piece of information about the employee's place in the organization of labour.

The third criterion is authority. Occupations and occupational groups in which the work consists largely of leadership activities have been grouped separately.

The scheme of designating occupational groups according to authority and competence follows the same principle among labourers as among salaried employees.

Self-employed persons are divided into those engaged in the field of fishing, agriculture or forestry on one hand, and other self-employed persons on the other. Other self-employed persons consist especially of persons working in industry, trades and various types of services.

The first category, consisting mostly of farmers and forestry workers, can be sub-divided according to the area of the land or forest they have at their disposal. Other self-employed persons are divided into various categories according to their number of employees.

Grouping persons who are not economically active is done partly on the basis of what they do and partly on the basis of their sources of income. The 2 criteria often give the same result.

Persons who go to school or study as their primary activity are defined as pupils or students. Home-workers are those persons who have unpaid housework and care work as their primary activity. Conscripts are defined correspondingly, according to their assigned activities.

On the other hand, old-age pensioners and other persons receiving social security benefits are defined according to what kind of pension they receive, in other words, on the basis of source of income.

At the most detailed level, these grouping principles result in a basic version with 33 categories. For many purposes this division into 33 categories is too detailed and complex. Therefore 2 different standards have been worked out, with 5 aggregation levels each. In this publication, the standard based on information concerning leadership is used. Only the 3 highest levels are used.

3.2. Family and types of household

Classification as family and type of household was valid by the census date 1 November 1980.

Family

One family is defined as:

1. A married couple with or without unmarried children who are registered as living in the same private home, a retirement home, a nursing home etc.

2. A father/mother with unmarried children who are registered as living in the same private home, a retirement home, a nursing home, a boarding home, a hotel etc.

3. A person not belonging to these 2 above mentioned categories is to be considered as one family (family consisting of one person).

In families with married couples are also included unmarried children of only one of the marital partners and unmarried adopted children and step-children, but not foster children.

The above mentioned distinction excludes persons (e.g. couples) who are not registered as living together in the same private dwellings, and therefore are not classified as members of the same family. Also married, separated, divorced and widowed persons are under no circumstances considered belonging to the same family as their parents. If, for example, a couple is living together with a divorced daughter, the couple forms a family of their own and the daughter also forms a separate family. We may also add that unmarried brothers and sisters who share the same home without any parents are classified as separate families.

The nuclear family

In multi-family households, the nuclear family is used as collective term for the family types mentioned below. A nuclear family will consist of either one or more of the same type of family, or a combination of the different family types. The following are considered to be a nuclear family in a private household:

1. Married couples and any unmarried children registered as living in the same private dwelling.

2. Father/mother with unmarried children registered as living in the same private dwelling.

3. Families with unspecified family types registered as living in the same private dwelling.

Relationship

In this publication relation between families in private households is established. This is, however, done only for households consisting of 2 families. The families are defined as relatives if:

1. One of the families has at least one son or daughter in the other family (route 4, question 1 on the person questionnaire).

2. The families consist of brother/sister, parents-in-law, grandparents, brother/sister-in-law, daughter/son-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, grandchildren (route 6, question 1 in the personal questionnaire).

Couples

The following are considered to be couples:

1. The term married couples means spouses with or without unmarried children registered as living in the same private dwelling, old-age home, nursing home, etc.

2. Unmarried co-habitating couples correspond to persons living together (in a marriage-like relationship) without having entered into formal matrimony. The group Cohabitants includes only persons registered in the Population Register as living at the same address and who have stated on their personal questionnaires (route 3, question 1) that they are living with a person to whom they are engaged, or live with without having entered into formal matrimony.

The family cycle

Family development has been divided into the following 4 phases:

    1. The early family phase includes single persons under the age of 40 or couples without children and who are under the age of 40.
    2. The early child-raising phase includes families in which the youngest child living at home is under the age of 10.
    3. The late child-raising phase includes families in which the youngest child living at home is between the ages of 10 and 19.
    4. The late family phase includes all other families.

Type of household

We distinguish between 2 basic types of household, namely, a private household and a joint household.

A Private household includes all persons who were registered as living in a private dwelling. This type of household is then subdivided according to the number of families belonging to the same household. Each household unit is as such considered a dwelling unit. Thus, all persons living under the same roof are being included. Therefore, the number of private households coincides with the number of dwelling units.

A joint household covers persons registered as living in a retirement home, a children's home, a nursing home etc.

Employees living in such homes with a joint household are always classified under the category private household. The same applies to military personnel, living in residences at military camps.

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3.4. Income variables

2 major income concepts are used, namely income from work and disposable income. Central to the understanding of income variables are the concepts state net income, and municipal net income.

Municipal net income

    The total gross income with the following deductions:
    - The highest sums of a) the sum of minimum deduction, travel expenses and adjustment deduction or b) the actual expenses for a job or work plus the adjustment deduction
    - Additional expenses for food and lodging on business trips/stays away from home
    - Travel expenses for visiting home
    - Premiums and deposits in private and public work-related retirement schemes, as well as deductible trade union dues
    - Deductions in income for spouses/single parents with children
    - Support payments, mortgaged real estate
    - Business deficit or real estate expenses
    - Obligatory support payments, etc.
    - Premium for individual retirement plan in conformity with enclosed receipt
    - Interest on debts, etc., as well as share of the deficit in a co-operative housing society
    - Other deductions, including special allowances

State net income

State net income is figured on the basis of municipal net income plus dividends from shares in Norwegian companies.

Labour earnings (pensionable income)

Labour earnings are defined as equal to the total pensionable income for persons 17 years of age or more. For persons between the ages of 13 and 16 who are taxed separately, labour earnings are defined as income after local deductions. Pensionable income, by central government of tax assessment, comprises also income earned on board ship.

Pensionable income comprises wages and other compensations received for services rendered, including and in addition to regular employment services, for example, fees, commissions, tips and other payments in kind and expense compensations. Income from self-employment are included, provided the income earner participates personally in the activity. Income from self-employment may be earned by the proprietor of a one-man firm or by a responsible member of an enterprise with personal joint and several liability. Sickness benefits and to a certain extent maternity benefits from the national insurance are also considered to be pensionable income.

Returns on capital that are independent of the participation of the income earner (for example, bank interest and stock dividends) are not considered to be pensionable incomes. The same is true of pension payments and other social security payments (with the exception of sickness and maternity benefits).

Wages and other compensations for services rendered, including and in addition to regular employment service, which are pensionable incomes, are usually registered in gross amounts. Deductions are usually not allowed for expenses incurred while earning income. Income from self-employment is, however, allowed deductions for this kind of expense. It is the net income from self-employment according to the tax law, without deduction for interest on debt, which constitutes the basis for the calculations. A fixed deduction of 10 per cent of this income is allowed. In addition a deduction is allowed for the interest on debt that exceeds 20 per cent of the net income without deduction of interest on debt (maximum 75 per cent of the net income). The gross amount is always stated for sickness and maternity benefits.

In 1980, pensionable income is normally stated with no top limit. A number of people have, however, got their incomes limited to 199 500 kroner which in 1980 was the upper limit for the calculation of membership dues to the national insurance. Labour earnings are rounded down to the closest number divisible by 100.

Calculated disposable income

Disposable income is calculated on the basis of the sum of net income by ordinary central government tax assessment plus special allowances and net income by taxation of seamen. If this sum equals zero, the sum of net income by municipal taxation plus special allowances and net income by taxation of seamen is used. If this sum is also equal to zero, pensionable income is used. If the person has not had pensionable income ashore, the pensionable income for the seamen's tax scheme is used. If this sum is also zero, the figure is based on the gross social security support received in the long-term social security system.

The following additional posts are added to the sum we now have:

    - Family allowance received
    - Living allowance received
    - Educational grants/loans received
    - Tax-free grants to persons for whom we have not had gross social security as a basis

To arrive at the calculated disposable income, the resultant sun is used, with the following deductions:

- The sum of assessed property and income tax plus taxes to national insurance and sickness benefits.

Calculated disposable household income

This amount equals the sum of the calculated disposable income for all persons in the household. Negative disposable income is equal to zero.

Calculated disposable income per person

This figure is arrived at by dividing the household's disposable income by the number of persons living in the household.

Calculated disposable income per consumer unit

Disposable income per consumer unit is arrived at by dividing the disposable household income by the total number of consumer units in the household.

When calculating the number of consumer units in the household, all persons are given a weight. Adults over the age of 16 are assigned the weight 1.0, other adults are assigned the weight of 0.7, while children under 16 years of age are assigned the weight of 0.5. The number of consumer units in a household equals the sum of the weights of all the persons in the household.

Main income earner

The person in the family and household who has the highest calculated disposable income is considered to be the main income earner.

Some services included in the term Disposable income, are usually not granted to individuals, but to families/households as a unit. This applies to the living allowance, for example. This type of benefit is, however, always recorded under individuals and is therefore included in the criteria for the choice of main income earners.

3.5. Geographical classifications

    In this publication the following classifications are used:
    1. The whole country
    2. Region
    3. County
    4. Residence area
    5. Municipality

Region
The classification of regions follows the Bureau's standard for classification of regions.

    1. Oslo/Akershus
    2. Østlandet ellers (Østfold, Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Vestfold, Telemark)
    3. Agder/Rogaland (Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder, Rogaland)
    4. Vestlandet (Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal)
    5. Trøndelag (Sør-Trøndelag and Nord-Trøndelag)
    6. Nord-Norge (Nordland, Troms, Finnmark)Residence area

A distinction has been made between 2 types of areas of residence, namely densely and sparsely populated areas. Densely populated areas within a municipality or a county consist of the urban settlements and possible parts of urban settlements located with the municipality/the county.

An urban settlement is defined as an agglomeration having at least 200 residents at the date of the census and where the distance between the houses - as a rule - does not exceed 50 metres. However, in some cases separately built-up areas which appear to be closely connected are classified as one urban settlement. Some of the urban settlements are located in 2 or more municipalities.

4. A COMPARISON WITH THE STATISTICS FROM THE POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS OF 1970

In some of the tables and figures in this publication, there are also numbers from the 1970 census. As a consequence of differences in coverage, survey design and design of procedure, the 1970 and 1980 censuses are not directly comparable. A number of indicators are classified differently. However, the figures from 1970 included in this publication are only used for indicators which are comparable.

Reference is also made to the Evaluation Survey that published the results of presumed changes from the 1970 to the 1980 census. It is, however, worth noticing that according to the Evaluation Survey the figures from the two censuses may not always be quite comparable because even if the definitions are similar, the characteristics may have a different quality (cf. chapter 5), The survey was published in the series Reports in 1985. Further, a publication will be made with comparable figures for .1960, 1970 and 1980. This will be published in the series Norway's Official Statistics (NOS) in 1985.

5. THE EVALUATION SURVEY

The Evaluation Survey on the Population and Housing Census 1980 (ES) is a sample survey held during November and December 1980, shortly after the population and housing census itself.

Casual and systematical errors always occur in the answers given on the questionnaires at population censuses and similar investigations. Additionally, a certain percentage of the participants fail to answer some of the questions.

The purpose of the evaluation survey was to acquire knowledge as to the coverage of such errors for some selected variables, and how big errors they cause in the statistics. We also wished to get insight into the causes of the errors in the given answers, and if the erroneous answers were concentrated around certain categories of answers and in certain groups within the population. A further purpose of the ES was to correct the census figures for the variables included in the ES.

In the ES, we have drawn a representative sample of persons and by means of interviewers visited these persons. The interviewers collected information about a sample of variables and these in formation were compared with those given in the questionnaires.

In the ES, questions about the variables were asked on the basis of the same definitions as for the census, but in a more detailed manner. Further, the questions were posed by trained interviewers, capable of solving misunderstandings. We therefore suppose, that the answers received through the ES have a better quality than those received through the census itself. Our experiences with the ES show, however, that nor can the data collected by the interviewers be considered 100 per cent correct.

The ES comprised only private dwellings being occupied as per 1 November 1980. It turned out that 1.0 per cent of the dwellings visited were empty or torn/burnt down before the census date. This was so, because the household we had expected to find in the dwelliNg, had not reported their removal. Additionally, 0.5 per cent of the visited households in reality were part of a common household, although they in the census were not registered as a common household.

The Evaluation Survey (ES) has looked at the indicators for housing and employment. The housing indicator, the number of rooms in a dwelling, varies in the ES and the census. The ES indicates that there are too few dwellings with 2, 3, 4 or 5 rooms. As regards type of ownership, the ES points out that both ownership and rentals are underestimated. This is especially true of privately-owned dwellings and dwellings rented on the basis of ordinary rental contracts. The ES also indicates that there are too few dwellings with 2 or more equal sources of heat.

There is good correlation between the census and the ES as regards the total number of economically active persons, but there are deviations between the figures for the levels for working-hour categories. The deviation is especially clear for the category 1 300 hours or more, where the population census seems to be underestimated. The ES further indicates that there are too few economically active persons in primary industries and in the occupational fields of agriculture, forestry and fishing. The ES has also, for some of the characteristics compared the quality of the censuses of 1970 and 1980. The observed increase in the number of economically active persons from 1970 to 1980 is not real.

According to the ES the number of economically active persons was about the same at the two census dates. The ES shows that the number of economically active persons, men as well as women was underestimated in 1970. This fact applies especially to women in the shortest working-hour categories.

The 1980 Evaluation Survey has been published separately in the series Reports in 1984. In addition, parts of the 1980 ES have been included in the publications housing statistics and employment statistics from the 1980 census (Norway's Official Statistics).